Postherpetic neuralgia is a disabling condition that impairs quality of life. Varying definitions of PHN have made it difficult to quantify its prevalence or qualify its severity. Clinically, PHN is a consequence of reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. The result of viral damage to the nervous system, PHN can be severe and intractable to therapy. Targeted analgesia may be useful in reducing the chronic discomfort of PHN caused by central sensitization. Undertreatment of PHN is common and can carry costly implications for third-party payers.