From California comes the idea that medical management companies, owned and operated by doctors and other providers, could replace HMOs.
Contracting with national laboratories saves money in the short run. But do health plans monitor quality well enough? Microbiologists worry.
Medicare+Choice may be the first wave in a movement to base payments on risk adjustment. But even advocates admit the technology's weak.
What can Americans learn from the worldwide spread of managed care? The question assumes that overseas experience translates. It can.