The FDA has issued two final orders to manufacturers and the public to strengthen the data requirements for surgical mesh to repair pelvic organ prolapse (POP) transvaginally. The FDA issued one order to reclassify these medical devices from class II, which generally includes moderate-risk devices, to class III, which generally includes high-risk devices, and a second order that requires manufacturers to submit a premarket approval (PMA) application to support the safety and effectiveness of surgical mesh for the transvaginal repair of POP.
The orders will require manufacturers to address safety concerns, including severe pelvic pain and organ perforation, through a PMA pathway to demonstrate safety and effectiveness. The actions apply only to mesh devices marketed for the transvaginal repair of POP. The orders do not apply to surgical mesh for other indications, such as stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or abdominal repair of POP.
Surgical mesh has been used by surgeons since the 1950s to repair abdominal hernias; in the 1970s, gynecologists began implanting surgical mesh for the abdominal repair of POP and, in the 1990s, for the transvaginal repair of POP. In 2002, the first mesh device with this indication was cleared for use as a class-II moderate-risk device, and five manufacturers are currently marketing this product.
In its announcement, the FDA noted that it has seen a significant increase in the number of reported adverse events associated with the use of surgical mesh for transvaginal POP repair during the past several years. In 2011, an advisory panel of experts recommended that more data were needed to establish the safety of the device. The FDA has since taken several actions to warn doctors and patients about the use of surgical mesh for transvaginal POP repair.
Manufacturers of surgical mesh to treat POP transvaginally will have 30 months, as required by federal law, to submit a PMA for devices that are already on the market. Manufacturers of new devices must submit a PMA before those devices can be approved for marketing.
POP occurs when the muscles and tissue of the pelvic floor become stretched, torn, or weakened and can no longer support pelvic organs, such as the bladder, bowel, or uterus; as a result, the organs drop from their normal position and prolapse into the vagina. While not a life-threatening condition, women with POP often experience low back pain or pelvic pressure, painful intercourse, constipation, or urinary problems, such as leakage or a chronic urge to urinate.
Doctors may perform surgery on women with POP who have significant symptoms, often using a minimally invasive transvaginal technique to reduce recuperation time. Surgical mesh may be permanently implanted during this surgery to reinforce the weakened pelvic-floor muscles and to repair POP, but during the past several years the FDA has received thousands of reports of complications involving the use of mesh for transvaginal POP repair. The most common problems reported include severe pelvic pain, pain during intercourse, infection, bleeding, organ perforation, and urinary problems from mesh eroding into surrounding tissues.
Source: FDA; January 4, 2015.